More than 11,000 species have been discovered in Vietnam, which ranks 16th among the 25 countries with the richest biodiversity, according to the Vietnam News Agency (VNA). The species include 6,000 benthic, 2,038 fish, 225 shrimp, 15 sea snakes, 12 marine mammals, five turtles, 43 water birds, 653 seaweed, 657 zooplankton, 94 mangrove plants, 14 seagrasses, and about 400 400 coral species.
There are more than 20 types of typical ecosystems in which these species can be found. They are highly productive biologically and influence the overall productivity of the entire ocean. A major effort has been made by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam to support policies and invest in essential infrastructure for marine protected areas in order to achieve effective marine conservation.
There are also policies that are necessary, according to the ministry, to support co-management in order to protect aquatic resources, which is particularly critical when it comes to co-management. A government’s support is also needed if fishermen working in marine protected areas are to switch to more sustainable livelihoods in order to be able to sustain their livelihoods.